School Kindness Scale for Children Results
Results found in the School Kindness Scale for Children found in Psychology in Schools Journal for a full summary, review the School of Kindness Scale.
School Kindness Scale
Directions: Circle the number that matches how you feel for each sentence
|How true is each statement for you?||Disagree a lot||Disagree a little||Don’t agree or Disagree||Agree a little||Agree a lot|
|1. The adults in my school model kindness||1||2||3||4||5|
|2. Kindness happens regularly in my classroom||1||2||3||4||5|
|3. Kindness happens regularly in my school||1||2||3||4||5|
|4. My teacher is kind||1||2||3||4||5|
|At my school, I am encouraged to be kind||1||2||3||4||5|
Factor Loadings of the Items of the School Kindness Scale
|The adults in my school model kindness||.69|
|Kindness happens regularly in my classroom||.66|
|Kindness happens regularly in my school||.62|
|My teacher is kind||.67|
|At my school, I am encouraged to be kind||.55|
We conducted an exploratory factor analysis (EFA), reliability testing, and scale analysis to examine the psychometric properties of the SKS. We also examined the associations of the SKS with other self- and teacher-report measures to examine evidence of construct validity.
Exploratory Factor Analysis:
We examined the factor structure of the SKS using EFA. The EFA was performed in MPlus (version 6; Muth´en & Muth´en, 2010) on the polychoric correlation matrices to accommodate the Likert-type data, with the mean and variance adjusted weighted-least squares estimation method. The first eigenvalue in our data was 2.57; the second eigenvalue was 0.85, indicating unidimensionality. The unidimensional model also showed adequate fit, with a root mean square error of approximation of 0.07 (cf. Vandenberg & Lance, 2000). The factor loadings of the items are provided in Table 1. All items showed high loadings (> .50) on the factor, ranging between .55 and .69.
Descriptive Statistics for the Study Measures
|Variable Name||M||SD||Skew||Kurtosis||N||Min. to Max|
|Social responsibility goals||4.26||.55||-1.08||1.87||1750||1.00-5.00|
Note: Min = minimum; max. = maximum. Descriptive statistics are based on the average scale scores.
Means, Standard Deviations, and Sample Sizes for the School Kindness Scale by Grade
Intercorrelations among Study Variables
|1. School kindness||–|
|4. Academic self-efficacy||.28**||.30**||.51**||–|
|6. Prosocial goals||.43**||.40**||.44**||.47**||.45**||–|
|7. Social responsibility goals||.41**||.35**||.44**||.50**||.42**||.61**||–|
|8. Life satisfaction||.45**||.41**||.65**||.43**||.67**||.37**||.39**`||–|
|10. Social skills||.26**||.20**||.26**||.24**||.21**||.26**||.40**||.25**||.67**||–|
|11. Peer acceptance||.16**||.19**||.26**||.22**||.24**||.20**||.17**||.23**||.41**||.53**||–|
**p < .001.